These follow the person's given name, e.g. The puristic tendency in the development of Icelandic vocabulary is to a large degree a result of conscious language planning, in addition to centuries of isolation. It was not a member of the EU, but in July 2009 the Icelandic parliament, the Althing, voted in favour of application for EU membership[114] and officially applied on 17 July 2009. These included Jóhannes Kjarval and Júlíana Sveinsdóttir. The possessive, though not the plural, of a noun, is often signified with the ending -s, as in English. Nursery school, or leikskóli, is non-compulsory education for children younger than six years, and is the first step in the education system. These schools are also known as gymnasia in English. The highest elevation for Iceland is listed as 2,110 m (6,923 ft) at Hvannadalshnúkur (64°00′N 16°39′W). [201] People from Greenland attempted to set up a settlement at Vinland in North America, but abandoned it in the face of hostility from the indigenous residents. [173][174] A 2000 report from the University of Iceland suggested that Iceland could potentially convert from oil to hydrogen power by 2040. An Icelandic independence movement took shape in the 1850s under the leadership of Jón Sigurðsson, based on the burgeoning Icelandic nationalism inspired by the Fjölnismenn and other Danish-educated Icelandic intellectuals. Hallgrímur Pétursson wrote many Protestant hymns in the 17th century. [143] The corporate tax rate is a flat 18%, one of the lowest in the world. On average, Iceland receives around 1.1 million visitors annually, which is more than three times the native population. Iceland was the first country in the world to have a political party formed and led entirely by women. [33] By 930, most arable land on the island had been claimed; the Althing, a legislative and judicial assembly, was initiated to regulate the Icelandic Commonwealth. Iceland. Pop: 6 431 902 (2013 est). [citation needed], According to the 2011 Global Peace Index, Iceland is the most peaceful country in the world, due to its lack of armed forces, low crime rate and high level of socio-political stability. Rímur are epic tales, usually a cappella, which can be traced back to skaldic poetry, using complex metaphors and elaborate rhyme schemes. Icelandic definition, of or relating to Iceland, its inhabitants, or their language. Some 500 Icelanders under the leadership of Erik the Red settled Greenland in the late 10th century. The artist run gallery space Kling og Bang, members of which later ran the studio complex and exhibition venue Klink og Bank, has been a significant part of the trend of self-organised spaces, exhibitions and projects. [122] Iceland is listed in the Guinness World Records book as the "country ranked most at peace" and the "lowest military spending per capita". [226], In contrast to other Nordic countries, Icelanders place relatively great importance on independence and self-sufficiency; in a public opinion analysis conducted by the European Commission, over 85% of Icelanders believe independence is "very important", compared to 47% of Norwegians, 49% of Danes, and an average of 53% for the EU25. Ingólfr was followed by many other emigrant settlers, largely Scandinavians and their thralls, many of whom were Irish or Scottish. Also called: Iceland agate. [118][119] Iceland supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq despite much domestic controversy, deploying a Coast Guard EOD team to Iraq,[120] which was replaced later by members of the Iceland Crisis Response Unit. Iceland (Icelandic: Ísland; [ˈistlant] (listen))[d] is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic Ocean, with a population of 356,991[6] and an area of 103,000 km2 (40,000 sq mi), making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe. [239] The Living Art Museum, Reykjavík Municipal Art Museum, Reykjavík Art Museum and the National Gallery of Iceland are the larger, more established institutions, curating shows and festivals. Swimming is popular in Iceland. Icelandic culture has its roots in North Germanic traditions. ", "Iceland parliament votes for gay marriage", Best and Worst Countries for Women, from Iceland to the U.S. to Pakistan and Afghanistan, Women's Empowerment: Measuring the Global Gender Gap, BBC News – Iceland 'best country for gender equality', "Literary Iceland Revels in Its Annual 'Christmas Book Flood,, "Vísindavefurinn: Hver er mest sótta heimasíðan á veraldarvefnum? [80], On 21 March 2010, a volcano in Eyjafjallajökull in the south of Iceland erupted for the first time since 1821, forcing 600 people to flee their homes. Iceland has hundreds of volcanoes with about 30 active volcanic systems. Download our English Dictionary apps - available for both iOS and Android. Iceland, however, has a variety of volcanic types (composite and fissure), many producing more evolved lavas such as rhyolite and andesite. [88] Only a few small birch stands now exist in isolated reserves. Iceland has the smallest population of any NATO member and is the only one with no standing army, with a lightly armed coast guard.[26]. On 5 May 1951, a defence agreement was signed with the United States. Iceland has a relatively young population for a developed country, with one out of five people being 14 years old or younger. Iceland pronunciation. Statue of Thorfinn Karlsefni by Icelandic sculptor Einar Jónsson in Philadelphia, The writer Halldór Laxness by Einar Hákonarson, 1984, Traditional Icelandic turf houses. Learn more. [further explanation needed] The ranking of geopolitical gains and losses after energy transition (GeGaLo Index) places Iceland first out of 156 countries, making it the main geopolitical winner in the global energy transition. Jökulsárlón is the deepest lake, at 248 m (814 ft). ", "A 2016 football moment to remember: Iceland light up Euro 2016", "Tee Off in the Midnight Sun of Reykjavík", "Team Uniting Nations On Pace To Shatter A World Record In Rowing | Huffington Post", "Freezing Temps and Rotting Hands: Speaking With the Men of the Record-Breaking Polar Row Expedition", "Impossible Row team achieve first ever row across the Drake Passage", Icelandic Government Information Center & Icelandic Embassies, Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe, autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu,, Member states of the European Free Trade Association, States and territories established in 1944, Articles with dead external links from March 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from May 2016, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles containing Icelandic-language text, Articles lacking reliable references from February 2020, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from June 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2016, Articles containing potentially dated statements from June 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2016, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, Articles containing potentially dated statements from August 2019, Articles lacking reliable references from October 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2006, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2009, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Source 1: Icelandic Meteorological Office, Source 2: All Icelandic weather station climatic monthly means. 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